Change Creates Information

My partner Albert likes to say that “change creates information.”

I have seen this a lot recently in our portfolio.

A change in leadership, a change in strategy, a change in cost structure.

Doesn’t really matter what it is, it can tell you a lot about what is going on in your company.

Making changes is painful and so it’s understandable that we all avoid change.

But if you can’t understand what is going on and you want some more visibility, make some changes.

You will learn a lot.


Comments (Archived):

  1. William Mougayar

    Change is hard,- biggest understatement. That’s why big companies have people with full-time Change Management jobs.

    1. awaldstein

      In startups of any size, of course, execs play that role.My experience brining mobility into the enterprise is that change management folks are often behind the curve and a hurdle as much as a help.

      1. William Mougayar

        true…lots of pushing to make change happen in big companies. it’s an edict that comes down.vs. nimble companies that get pulled towards change and they get it.

        1. awaldstein

          I think it is less about nimble and more about leadership.Leaders move people and make change normal.That’s true in companies of 5 or 500 people,I can’t define nimble, we all can define leadership.

  2. Marissa_NYx

    Change is something which can be painful when you don’t feel like you have a say or if you don’t feel in control. However change is all around us and can and should be expected. We can learn it. Resilience and faith is key, knowing the rules of engagement too . Looking at life through rose tinted glasses helps. Whether you call it “disruption ” or “pivot ” or “time to move on” handling change is both an art and a science. The pain is in the emotion reacting to the change rather than the change event itself. The change is what it is .

  3. awaldstein

    Yup–agree.More interesting to me is that we alway need to realize that we never have enough and most all decisions are made with what–80%–of true facts in hand.

    1. JimHirshfield

      You said “true facts”, LOL

      1. Vasudev Ram

        That’s because he knows that nowadays there are false facts floating around.

        1. JimHirshfield

          Shirley you mean “alternative facts”

          1. Vasudev Ram

            Yes, Virginia, I meant false truths.

      1. awaldstein

        What we need is to challenge then trust our gut as that tempered by experience is the basis of most everything we do.

        1. Twain Twain

          “Data and pattern recognition based on previous experiences is no guarantee of future performance.”That’s a paraphrasing of the first line of a Safe Harbor statement for companies.Science brought us the discipline of collecting observations in a systematic and as objective a way as possible, so that we can “join the dots” as Jim rightly says.How we join them is, oftentimes, based on intuition, how we feel and abstractions of faith rather than on facts.And that’s ok too.

    2. falicon

      Bezos’ shareholder letter just referenced this (though he said target around 70%)…guess it’s true what they say about great minds! 🙂

  4. jason wright

    is this Wengerism, passed down from generation to generation, formulated on a Bavarian mountain top long ago?

  5. Joe Marchese

    Lots of good thoughts about change, but I’m fond of this one:“Some people think change takes time. Not true; change happens in an instant. Preparing for change and accepting it: that takes time.” – Chris Westfall

    1. jason wright

      which one?

  6. JimHirshfield

    “Change Creates Information” is reminiscent of the dots versus lines practice. One data point (a dot) is less telling than multiple points of data (over time…a line).

      1. JimHirshfield

        ^^ Art rather than curve

        1. Twain Twain

          Heart more than art.

      2. ShanaC


      3. Kirsten Lambertsen

        I keep thinking this has to be doodle on Kandinsky’s cocktail napkin.

    1. Richard

      Spoken like a true Bayesian

    2. Joe Cardillo

      Writing something on this actually – not sure yet if it’ll veer into cryptocurrency or stay more general, but thinking about how we tend to think of each data point in a binary manner and can’t deal with the fact that it’s often flexible depending on context. It’s an inherent principle of any data point (duality/particle and wave theory type stuff).

      1. JimHirshfield

        I don’t know that that’s the case. Think of a stock chart (graph). If I’m interested in a stock’s price, I will look at a graph of it’s price over time – obviously more meaningful (context) but also a very common practice. IOW, I don’t think people just look up the price alone (single data point) unless they’ve been following the stock for some time (i.e. all other data points implicitly stored in their head).

        1. Joe Cardillo

          Oh I agree w/that, I doubt very many people make decisions or understand something based on a single point. But what that data point means isn’t nearly as linear as people make it out to be, even with currency.For example, something I’ve been trying to better understand (though admittedly I have an IRA and that’s about it) is the effect of exec buyback instruments, which drive up the price of stock over time but aren’t necessarily a reliable indicator of the health of a company even over the long term. E.g. you can have an indicator that looks healthy, but can cause problems later. Shifting large swatch of exec. compensation into complex stock options is still fairly new, but it’s an example of how data can look one way in aggregate. Maybe there’s an easy way for big data to break that down, though…

  7. Anne Libby

    And this is the carrot to encourage letting go of that person who won’t stop acting like a jerk — no matter how much you think you “need” them.

    1. JimHirshfield

      Ms. Huffington said there would no longer be hiring of “brilliant jerks.”

    2. Kirsten Lambertsen

      A to the m-e-n!

    3. Joe Cardillo

      Yep, always costs much more in the long term – creativity and innovation demand people who are willing to grow and learn. Was just talking this a.m. w/someone about that, and it part of the understanding that philosophy and sociology are important disciplines that markets are built on.

      1. sigmaalgebra

        My wife’s Ph.D. was a relatively good one in essentially mathematical sociology. Her professors included both P. Rossi and J. Coleman, both past presidents of the American Sociology Association.Sure, in some sense, sociology should be one of the best backgrounds for doing well in marketing. Alas, apparently so far the approaches to marketing from just experience, intuition, and relatively simple analysis of data do better than anything from scientific material from sociology.For more, my brother got his Ph.D. in political science but started in psychology — there he concluded that (A) there were lots of interesting questions about people but next to nothing in solid scientific answers and (B) there were lots of solid scientific answer about rats but no interesting questions. So, he switched to political science, still farther away from science!Net, so far social science may be of at most tiny help in marketing. The need and potential are there; my guess is that, for solid scientific progress, the social scientists need to be much better at original research in the novel applied math they will need.

        1. Joe Cardillo

          Oh, I wasn’t even thinking of marketing specifically, just marketplace dynamics generally…but that’s interesting, and you do a nice job of laying out the problem (which I’ve personally found hard to do). V. much agree that social scientists need to accelerate use and knowledge of applied mathematics.The thing I keep coming back to (and that tech / online platforms + audiences often take for granted and sociology doesn’t) is that we don’t have a good system for understanding the whys and hows of people interacting on the web. Algorithms and machine learning are tools that help us decode, but they don’t automatically answer those Qs, the interesting Qs, as you note. Part of the reason we have fake news and extreme trolling, for example, is because the programmers and designers who built our most well-known platforms didn’t have a research or sociology background. Since 2015 many, like Facebook, have been adding that component (e.g.… ) but it’s not even close to replacing the research from academic institutions. There’s also the balance of “make them click” vs. develop a long-term relationship…which is deeply linked to quarterly earnings calls where increased engagement equals higher stock prices. Tricky stuff.

  8. pointsnfigures

    Like going from an iPhone to an Android

  9. victorpascucci3

    So insightful and true !

  10. Frank W. Miller

    Its like turning on the lights in the middle of the night. The cockroaches scatter if you haven’t kept your house clean.

  11. Camilo Jiménez

    Great insight! I’d add this: “There is a big probability that this information is something you won’t be able to see otherwise”. I recently made some big changes in my life (some of them were not in my control) and found out really nice information about my next step in life (another startup haha, it’s an addiction)

  12. Robert Heiblim

    True. Thank you Fred

  13. Kirsten Lambertsen

    I’ll never forget the first time I put this into action (years and years ago). I was leading a team that I could tell was getting bored. So I set aside a whole day to reorganize, as a team, the work that our team did. Then we custom tailored new jobs for everyone according to (i) strengths, (ii) what they enjoyed, and (iii) career goals.One woman on the team was inspired to be really frank and say, “I don’t have career goals. I just want to like the people I work with and feel that I’m making a really valuable contribution.” Turned out she *wanted* to do the kind of ‘housekeeping’ tasks that the rest of us didn’t. I had no idea. I had made assumptions about her that were way off the mark, just because she was working at a tech startup.The team was SO happy, productive and innovative after that.

    1. Vasudev Ram

      Great story.

    2. Twain Twain

      Thanks, great reminder that we often make assumptions when asking gets us answers faster! Lol.I love that she said she had no career goals. Sometimes, our best roles happen when we’re not looking for them!

      1. Kirsten Lambertsen

        I’d bet money, too, that she ended up being very successful in her career (I lost touch with her). Because she was doing work that felt right and was fulfilling, she was fantastic at it.It _is_ funny that I would _never_ have thought to ask someone, “Do you have career goals?” I learned a lot from that team.

        1. LE

          For sure people have different levels of ambition in addition to goals. If you have ambition I am not sure you need goals either. Merely working hard in a general direction will take you a long way. Ambition means taking advantage and evaluating all opportunities.I remember dating a girl once who was a speech therapist in the NYC public schools. Had a masters degree to do that job and made a decent NYC teachers salary (close to $100k iirc). One time I picked her up and started to tell her about something that I read that I thought would be helpful with her job. She was literally ‘I am exhausted don’t care about that now’. Ok so maybe she was. But to me that was not the response of a go getter and the truth was she was always in that mode. No need for improvement. Just doing the job and further liked working (and I have heard this from other teachers in NYC) at a 2nd or 3rd rate school because ‘at the better schools the parents are all on your case’. So in this school she could just cruise and wait for the weekends. I’ve heard that a few times actually from people of all ages. Just phoning it in. One teacher (parent of this girl actually) was proud of the fact that in her last year of teaching she could get away with just showing films in the classroom. So was a friend of her that I met. Just stay out of the ‘rubber room’. Maybe the job just makes you that way (to be generous in interpretation).

          1. sigmaalgebra

            Naw, it ain’t always this way!E.g., yesterday I had to mail some stuff so wanted some photocopies of what I sent (right another stupid but sadly necessary delay, of too many to count, in my going ahead and getting my startup live and making money — in most ways, the 100,000 lines of typing for the code was easier than some of the stupid delays). Some of the stuff I mailed was from my printer, so I could get such a copy from the printer. But I don’t have a scanner so in effect don’t have a photocopying machine. [Now that scanners have plenty fast enough USB connections and good software and are cheap, I should get one.]So, I went to my local library to use their photocopying machine.Terrific place! Floor clean enough to eat off of! Not a speck of dust in sight! A place for everything, and everything in its place. Everyone happy! Lots of kids and mothers around, and the kids well behaved. Lots of attractive displays of books, with colorful covers, to read.Lots of staff members around — maybe a bit overstaffed. All the staff smiling and eager to help.Right, apparently the staff was 100% female and all dedicated, perfectionistic, with A+ grades in smiling and social interactions. So, they were all caring, no one phoning it in.Tough for me to be comfortable in a place as nice as that since no way could I get their A+ grades and no doubt would be stepping on subtle, hidden, tricky, social etiquette eggs right and left. So, my only feasible stance, presentation was to play the role of a helpless doofus, easy enough to do, who asked questions about every little thing, e.g., about could I put $3 worth of quarters into the photocopying machine all at once and, then, just make copies, at $0.15 per copy, make 20 copies? Answer: Yes, I could. I had a lot of papers to shuffle — two lists I’d brought of TODO items, papers I needed to copy, ones I didn’t, the papers I’d copied, and the copies, the file folder, the mailing envelope, my AAAI tote bag — so spread out on a table next to the machine.The place was nice, so darned nice as to have me feel awkward. Maybe I should play the snowflake card and blame the place for making me “feel bad”? Naw!Now reviewing the place, prominently behind the main counter was a woman, the one that answered my question about the quarters, about 70 with all gray hair and apparently fully alert and paying attention to everything. Maybe she was the head Mother Hen and had all the younger hens and everything else in just perfect order. If so then she was the captain of a tight ship, hen house, whatever.Gee, now that I review, to ask a question, it was only necessary to stand, look a little lost, and make eye contact with a member of the staff. Darned helpful place.So, lots of women working in an operation with local funding and serving lots of kids don’t always just “phone it in”.Good reason to provide services funded by taxes locally with local management, a great Mother Hen right there, instead of just a big organization with rules, policies, procedures, etc. — formality over reality.Maybe the difference is, need a Mother Hen, Captain of the ship, about 70, who has seen it all in how to mess up, make a mess, and have a mess and also how to run a tight ship, hen house. Maybe when budget time comes up before the local town council, she just stands and has her way. Or the BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement) is something the town council definitely does not want — for her to leave and let the library become a mess. So, the place is so darned nice because then the voters tell the town council that they really like the library!It is interesting to see just how a 70 year old Mother Hen could be so good at running such a tight ship — not a speck of dust in sight, everyone, including the kids, all being well behaved. Interesting.

    3. sigmaalgebra

      That’s a short cut version of why in my startup, once it starts to grow, I want one of the first hires to be a woman and have her grow into COO with reporting to her HR, customer service, publicity, marketing, …, to organize the office Christmas party and the summer BBQ, etc.I’ve seen a problem that needs to be solved for maybe 90% of the people on the Internet, derived some original applied math for likely and apparently by far the best (uh, safe for work) solution so far, a must have for that 90%, for that 90% maybe on average 30 minutes at my Web site a few times a week, designed and written the software, etc., and all that was fast, fun, and easy for me, but I have less than even a weak little hollow hoot of a tiny clue about all the social, psychological, personal, emotional, inter-personal, presentation of self before the public (E. Goffman), whatever with the example so well described here.So, I’m not a complete fool, have learned, often paid very high “full tuition”, now DO see the difference: I”m 100% sexist, have zero respect for gender equality, and want only a WOMAN running all the human aspects of my company! Math, software, hardware I can do — fast, fun, and easy. Humans are MUCH more difficult!Why? As is now well known, from both lots of parents and some relatively solid social science, already in the crib the boys are paying attention to things and the girls, to PEOPLE. [Corollary: Boys can get practical work done. Bluntly, girls can’t, at least not in competition with boys. If a girl needs practical work done, then she can smile and get a boy to do it for her!] Boys rush ahead with things, and the girls never catch up. The girls rush ahead with people, and the boys never catch up. That’s just the way it is, long has been, and no doubt won’t change soon.How long? Okay: Girls in Japan can be just terrific at smiling at people. So can girls in France. So on smiling at people, girls in Japan and France are darned close (and both a long way from boys). [E.g., Betsy Devos looks like a total sweetheart; Steve Mnuchin looks like a guy good at getting practical things done, especially having to do with money and the economy.]But, wait, there’s more! As we know, a good guess is that the most recent common ancestor of those two girls was about 40,000 years ago. So, to get the genetic changes from the girl in Japan to the one in France, have to go backwards 40,000 years to the common ancestor and, then, forwards to the girl in France. So, on smiling at people, the common ancestor is CLOSER genetically to both the girls in Japan and the one in France. So, since on smiling at people the girl in Japan is close to the girl in France and the common is still closer to both of those girls, the common ancestor was also good at smiling at people. So, for how long girls have been good smiling at people? At least 40,000 years. QED. I can do arguments like that, easily; smile at people, like girls, even as well as a girl of 6? Not a chance. So, I want a WOMAN COO, office Mother Hen, Den Mother, etc.Maybe I’ll get sued by the Liberated Men?

      1. cavepainting

        For a guy so smart in some ways, you are so full of shit in other ways. These are sweeping generalizations that are really not true.

        1. sigmaalgebra

          You failed to support your claim.> These are sweeping generalizations that are really not true.You didn’t mention even one such.What I said about already in the crib girls paying attention to people and boys to things is about as solid an observation about child development as we have: Lots of parents with both girls and boys notice this — maybe try to start the girls on firetrucks, Lego blocks, erector sets, carpentry, baseballs, etc. like their brothers but soon enough see the girls going for other girls, with gossip, dolls, pretty dresses, playing with a doll house, reading stories about people, dressing up like their mothers, etc.There is some recent actual research that makes this point about as solid as can be expected.Miss this point and are at risk of making some biggie mistakes in life.My point that girls 40,000 years ago are as good at smiling as girls from Japan and France is a simple, quite solid little argument from genetics. That the girls in Japan and France are good at smiling is from my observation that from the crib girls are good with people. E.g., just by smiling and/or shedding a tear, they can wrap daddy around their little finger — in both Japan and France, and the US. You need to realize this — if you have a daughter, your daughter will realize this by about age 4 and her mother before weaning! You won’t have a chance!Today walking out of the grocery store where I’d stocked up on junk food, a little reward, for good behavior, there was a table selling Girl Scout Cookies. Since I’d just gotten too much junk food, I didn’t buy cookies. But, there with the cookies were some of the girl scouts, and I explained to the girls that I’d just gotten too much junk food — I didn’t want to offend the girls, they were cute, sincere, and sensitive, and I did want to explain why I didn’t want more junk food. Then I looked up, saw one of the women about 40 supervising the effort, smiled and said “This ought to be against the law”, and right away the woman understood and confessed that I had a point — the girls were TOO DARNED CUTE. That’s how they can sell cookies and why their daddies will be willing to work themselves to death to have money enough for their pretty dresses, prom dresses, white bedroom furniture, smartphones so that they can gossip with their girlfriends, ballet lessons, ice skating lessons, college tuition, and a big wedding, all just to see their daughters smile. Works that way for the boys? Not a chance!Retailers know this well and, thus, put young women on the front counter to meet the customers.That women are better at HR, organizing the office Christmas party, running a library for children and their mothers, teaching nearly all the material in K-6, maybe K-8, are also what is standard in experience.Girls and boys are very different, from the crib onward: In grade school, the girls are much better socially, understanding the emotions of others, manual dexterity, reading, writing, language skills, spelling, and more. The boys are better at spacial relations, things, and a lot in reasoning related to abstract math. The boys do better in the math SATs and the girls, in the verbal SATs.For any “generalizations”, no doubt there are some, but in my other posts here I didn’t make many.I did give a disclaimer that I can understand math, software, and hardware but don’t have a clue about social, psychological, emotional, etc. issues such as in the posts by Kirsten Lambertsen I responded to. Maybe you could have understood those people and that woman as well as Kirsten did, but IMHO only a tiny fraction of people who go to men’s rooms could.I’m totally tired of and fed up with all that stuff about boys and girls are just exactly the same except for some few percent of their anatomies. That claim is some seditious, destructive, brain-dead, PC stuff swallowed, cough, cough, by much of Western Civilization because of the threat of feelings of guilt from any recognition of any differences that might lead to unfairness — extra credit for knowing the source.. BS. The solution to that PC fear is easy — “Men and women deserve equal respect as persons but are not the same”, extra credit for knowing the source. Boys, girls, men, women, they are not nearly the same. In a word, they are different. In two words, very different. You can learn this lesson here now for free, or you can learn it the hard way and pay very high, “full tuition”. “Experience is the great teacher, and some will learn from no other.”. Very likely you will learn, low tuition or high, or suffer the agonies of the damned.

          1. cavepainting

            We are all definitely not the same, but we are not all the same within a type either.I have two sons aged 4 and 12, grew up with one sister and several cousin sisters, and have seen my niece grow up every day. They are all unique with different strengths and talents. Nothing that suggests that girls are all of one type, and boys of another.Of course, there are some natural differences that need to be celebrated, but that really cannot be an excuse to compartmentalize and stereotype. All discrimination and bias begins there.If you say you don’t have a clue about social, emotional issues, why would you want to make broad claims about things you profess to not understand?

          2. sigmaalgebra

            Take the set of all boys and the set of all girls. The differences between the sets are larger than the differences within the sets.Same for kittens and puppies. Same for boy kitty cats v girl kitty cats. Etc.For why when I don’t understand? Slowly at high tuition I came to understand a little. E.g., I know I can’t do what Kirsten did.

    4. ShanaC

      why aren’t most organizations as honest as this woman?

      1. Kirsten Lambertsen

        There had been a lot of water under the bridge with that team where my loyalty to them and their loyalty to each other had been demonstrated in flying colors. There was a level of trust and acceptance that can’t be manufactured.

      2. Adam Sher

        Honesty about career goals is usually discouraged through how management treats those who are honest. I doubt that most people want to forge ahead and dominate the company corporate ladder. A job is often a paycheck, and a means to enable other life goals. I know a lot of people who feel that way and a excellent employees.

        1. ShanaC

          Doesn’t anyone else who isn’t me think that enabling that honesty may create better employees doing better work?

          1. Vasudev Ram

            Me thinks. See link about Semler and Semco in my comment on recent Fred post on Decentralized Self-Organizing Systems.

      3. PhilipSugar

        Trust. They have to trust that you aren’t going to fire them

    5. PhilipSugar

      This is a great comment she must have had a lot of trust in you. It why diversity is so important. I’ve had people tell me I want to do my job from 8 to 4 pickup my kids and go home. They provide a great addition to the teamThey can be men or women. I am not up for your crazy ass schedule. I don’t want calls from Singapore Sydney and London to my cell in the middle of the night. I know that means I’m not going to be above a certain level but that is what I want

  14. LE

    Making changes is painful and so it’s understandable that we all avoid change.In short, FUD, fear uncertainty, doubt prevents many changes. I am guessing that in the interview process you can probably figure out the degree to which a particular person may be willing to take the appropriate gambles or make the hard choices that are often necessary in business. And if you want to know at least one reason that there is a meme that goes around that being an asshole in business has it’s rewards, this is one of them. People who are able to repress their conscience are much more likely to be able to make the hard decisions when the time comes around to do so. Those with to much of a heart (and I didn’t say no heart) often can’t do that or will wait until the bitter end. Generally, always exceptions and of course luck.

    1. Joe Cardillo

      Interesting point. Truthfully, seems like innovation in the marketplace often requires freethinking/sensitivity/creativity to get to an idea, and toughness / mercilessness to turn it into a large scale business. Yet, companies fall flat on their faces (United Airlines) all the time b/c they forget about the first part and the human connection required.

      1. LE

        Yet, companies fall flat on their faces (United Airlines)I don’t know if I agree with that. If the number of customer interactions is large and the number of employees is large you are bound to have screw ups it’s statistically improbable that you won’t. It’s the year 2017 and this very well may be the first time this has happened. Or at least rare enough to finally have in the smartphone era proof of it. I don’t think this was actually a big issue other than the right combination of a nutty customer and a security force that wasn’t as careful as it should have been. (Not employed by UAL. Like any airline accident many things had to come together for this one to occur. With large numbers weird stuff will happen. I got confronted on an airplane (for taking pictures of the exit door) and complied like any civil person would. If they asked me to leave my seat I’d be pissed but I wouldn’t let someone drag me out for sure. So how do you manage the edge cases?I hate to use numbers to prove a point but as it happens UAL stock clearly beats AAL stock same industry. See chart below. (Would think the same even if it didn’t but I will use it to bolster my argument because I can..)How do you manage the human connection when you have thousands of employees and are large and diverse? I think that’s tough when your competitors are cut from a different bolt of cloth in a business where let’s face it price is a large part of what drives decision making. We are not talking about a luxury brand competing with other luxury brands.As an employee you follow the rule book very clear that is what happened here. You start giving people the ability to do different things and you will have another set of problems to deal with.Airlines back in the day were famous for the meals looking precisely exactly the same for fear of ‘food envy’ by one passenger thinking another got a bigger portion… https://uploads.disquscdn.c

        1. Joe Cardillo

          Agreed re: edge cases and scale, I don’t expect that’s a problem anyone can solve easily. And point taken on stock price, although, the graphs look pretty similar for all airlines over 5 yr performance…which maybe reinforces your point about how much price matters rather than other intangibles.On the other hand, Southwest has done quite well (even after that fuel price lock in that gave them an advantage). Also, I’m not quite sure I agree that this United incident is an anomoly, though whether people really switch b/c of awful service even when price is significantly lower is debatable. But it does seem clear United falls on its face quite often e.g.

  15. jason wright

    how might this idea be applied to this blog?are you considering any experimental changes to receive information feedback?

    1. fredwilson

      i got rid of the hyphens 🙂

      1. Vasudev Ram

        Rather dashing action.

        1. @mikeriddell62

          Just had a look at Backfeed. Not sure how it will build a network being so technical. Maybe their proposition ought to come from a simpler more ‘populist’ place?

  16. karen_e

    Yes. Another way to say it: “Break something today!”

  17. creative group

    CONTRIBUTORS:It appears the majority of the contributors will not even address the elephant in the room.The successful, brilliant, creative and every other adjective you desire to use for a successful Founder/CEO is rarely called out or labeled as the A hole’s many are know them.…Larry Ellison Marissa Mayer Steve JobsJeff Bezos(As reported by those who worked with and for them)If you are an exceptional CEO, you get the job done and there will be few worries.The CEO’s who is not great usually is the nicest guy. He/She is known as the nicest CEO but the numbers reveal he isn’t a good operations person.A generalization. Because we have collaborated with a few great CEO’s who were nice and numbers were great.



    1. Matt A. Myers

      This is Zorg’s exact logic from The Fifth Element.



  19. ShanaC

    change is also a product of new information – so in some senses, this is cyclical.

  20. Adam Sher

    Yes, Fred, yes. It’s a painful lesson I learn weekly. Moving staff into different departments and enforcing deadlines on projects create a lot of information on how things are going. It often feels frantic and painful but overall a good thing.

  21. VR Vadoothker

    One is we have to analyse the change.second aspect is internal taxonomic strucural tree representation, In that one variable change creates new information.